Human brains are shrinking and, apparently, it is natural process. 
According to anthropologists, Homo Sapiens brain, Since Stone Age, (over the past 40,000 years), shrink in size by about 10%! Originally this fact was discovered in 1980 but still there is no viable theory of why it is happening. One is that once humans begin recording information, whether on cave walls, scrolls, stone tablets, etc., some of that brain capacity was no longer needed. Another theory is that humans underwent a process called "self-domestication". It is well known fact that domesticated animals have a decreased skull size compare to their wild counterparts. The theory goes that humans naturally selected mates who were more cooperative rather that combative, and possibly passed along genes that regulated certain hormones related to brain size. Some scientists call this theory "survival of the friendliest". Some of them believe that because of "aggressiveness" genes and production of certain hormones is no longer needed as much for survival as in the past, friendlier, less aggressive humans became a dominant species on earth. There for, huge area of the brain responsible for survival through the aggression became less valuable, thus the size of it was slowly diminishing from generation to generation.

​​Aztecs considered cacao beans more valuable than gold.
You may love chocolate, but probably not as much as the Aztecs did. This Mesoamerican culture, which flourished in the 15th and early 16th centuries, believed cacao beans were a gift from the gods and used them as a currency that was more precious than gold. The biggest chocoholic of them all was the ninth Aztec Emperor, Montezuma II (1466–1520 CE), who called cacao “the divine drink, which builds up resistance and fights fatigue. A cup of this precious drink permits a man to walk for a whole day without food.” To say he practiced what he preached would be an understatement: Montezuma II was known to drink 50 cups of hot chocolate a day (from a golden goblet, no less). His preferred concoction is said to have been bitter and infused with chilis. 
Needless to say, that was an expensive habit. Aztec commoners could only afford to enjoy chocolate during special occasions, whereas their upper-class counterparts indulged their sweet tooth more often. That’s in contrast to the similarly chocolate-obsessed Mayans, many of whom had it with every meal and often threw chili peppers or honey into the mix for good measure.

Cinnamon also used to be more valuable than gold.
The woody, warming spice we sprinkle with abandon on top of holiday cookies, baked goods, and seasonal coffees is native to Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and India. But very few people knew where cinnamon came from when merchants first began selling spices throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa as far back as 3,000 years ago — and spice traders capitalized on that lack of knowledge to charge high prices. Harvested from the inner bark of Cinnamomum trees, cinnamon has been used for thousands of years as medicine, for religious practices and funerals, and in cuisine, but with a big price tag: It was once considered more precious than gold.

Cats aren’t nocturnal.
Everyone with a cat knows that felines love running around at night, especially when their so-called owners are trying to sleep. Despite that, cats aren’t actually nocturnal — they’re crepuscular, meaning they’re most active during dusk and dawn. The reason they prefer twilight has to do with their hunting instincts, as their eyes are well attuned to low-light conditions that allow them to see their prey while remaining hidden themselves. And because they’re descended from desert hunters, dusk and dawn are also favorable due to cooler temperatures. This doesn’t stop them from sleeping all day, of course, but they’re always ready to wake up in an instant — an adaptation that helps keep them safe from predators and alert to opportunities for tiny prey.

The Earth is big, but the sun is bigger — way bigger.                                        Measuring 338,102,469,632,763,000 cubic miles in volume, the sun is by far the largest thing in our solar system, and some 1.3 million Earths could fit within it. Even if you placed Earth in the sun and maintained its spherical shape (instead of squishing it together to fit), the sun could still hold 960,000 Earths. Yet when it comes to stars, our sun is far from the biggest. For instance, Betelgeuse, a red giant some 642.5 light-years away, measures nearly 700 times larger and 14,000 times brighter than our sun.

Leeches have 32 brains.
Humans love to think we’re the brainiest species around, but leeches have an impressive 32 brains (making them absolute shoo-ins if Mensa ever expands their ranks to include non-human animals). These bloodsucking invertebrates are biologically divided into around 32 separate sections, which each feature their own brain fragment. In addition to housing a leech’s thought centers, these segments serve additional functions: The first few contain a leech’s eyes and front sucker, the middle sections are where you can find the bulk of a leech’s nerves and reproductive system, and the rear portion is home to yet another sucker at its tail end. Some leeches also possess 10 stomachs and nine pairs of testicles (all leeches are hermaphrodites, with both male and female sex organs).
Yet leeches are far from the only living things with more organs than you might expect.


The microwave was invented by accident, thanks to a melted candy bar.
The history of technology is filled with happy accidents. Penicillin, Popsicles, and Velcro? All accidents. But perhaps the scientific stroke of luck that most influences our day-to-day domestic life is the invention of the microwave oven. Today, 90% of American homes have a microwave, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, but before World War II, no such device — or even an inkling of one — existed. 
During the war, Allied forces gained a significant tactical advantage by deploying the world’s first true radar system. The success of this system increased research into microwaves and the magnetrons (a type of electron tube) that generate them. One day circa 1946, Percy Spencer, an engineer and all-around magnetron expert, was working at the aerospace and defense company Raytheon when he stepped in front of an active radar set. To his surprise, microwaves produced from the radar melted a chocolate bar (or by some accounts, a peanut cluster bar) in his pocket. After getting over his shock — and presumably cleaning up — and then conducting a few more experiments using eggs and popcorn kernels, Spencer realized that microwaves could be used to cook a variety of foods. Raytheon patented the invention a short time later, and by 1947, the company had released its first microwave. It took decades for the technology to improve, and prices to drop, before microwaves were affordable for the average consumer, but soon enough they grew into one of the most ubiquitous appliances in today’s kitchens.

Scientists think there may be several million more species left to discover.
Scientists have been putting names to species for hundreds of years, with Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus revolutionizing science with his binomial system — the foundation of modern taxonomy — in the 1750s. And while it may seem unlikely that any species could escape our gaze after centuries of searching, it turns out Mother Nature is pretty good at hide-and-seek. Today, scientists are aware of 1.7 million species, from the simple sea sponge to the gargantuan African bush elephant, yet estimates suggest there could be several million more species left to discover, or more. In fact, we may only know about 20% of all the species that are out there. Many of these yet-to-be-discovered animals live in some of the hardest-to-reach places, such as dense rainforests or the depths of the ocean. And many of them are incredibly tiny. 

Sugar used to be prescribed as medicine.
Beloved film character Mary Poppins is known for sweetly singing that “a spoonful of sugar makes the medicine go down.” While it works wonders on-screen, the trick didn’t start with the fictitious nanny; healers, doctors, and pharmacists have relied on sugar to help patients choke down unsavory medications for thousands of years. But at one time, the sweet stuff wasn’t just an add-in — it was often the featured ingredient in healing remedies believed to cure all kinds of ailments. Sugar was used to treat sickness and injury as far back as the first century, when Middle Eastern practitioners prescribed it for dehydration, kidney issues, failing eyesight, and more. During the 11th century, English monks noted sugar’s ability to soothe upset stomachs and digestive issues, and by the Middle Ages doctors tried treating bubonic plague with concoctions of hemp, sugar, and more unpleasant ingredients. As recently as the 1700s, pharmacists recommended a glass of lemon juice and sugar water for asthma attacks.


 There are probably Greenland sharks alive right now that are older than the United States.
When we think of animals with long life spans, tortoises usually come to mind first. But even Jonathan, a roughly 189-year-old giant tortoise who resides in St. Helena, would seem positively young compared to the average Greenland shark. Somniosus microcephalus (“sleepy small-head”) can live as long as 400 years or more, meaning there are probably some of them swimming the depths right now who predate the United States — or Sir Isaac Newton, for that matter. The deep-sea dwellers, most commonly found in the Arctic Ocean and North Atlantic, are the world’s longest-living vertebrates.


Bees can recognize human faces.
Humans have known about bees for a long time: 8,000-year-old cave paintings in Bicorp, Spain, show early humans scaling trees to collect honey. But modern scientists wanted to know if bees recognize us, which is why researchers have put the insects’ microscopic brains to the test. In a 2005 study, honey bees were trained to memorize pictures of human faces by scientists who rewarded them for correct matches with droplets of sugar water. While a bee’s-eye view isn’t as clear as our own gaze, the buzzing insects were able to correctly differentiate between faces up to 90% of the time — even two days after first seeing them, and when the sweet incentives were removed.


Koala fingerprints are almost indistinguishable from those of humans.
Every fingerprint is unique, but that doesn’t mean they’re easy to tell apart — especially since humans aren’t the only species that’s developed them. Chimpanzees and gorillas have fingerprints too, but it’s actually koalas — far more distant on the evolutionary tree from humans — whose prints are most similar to our own. This was first discovered by researchers at the University of Adelaide in Australia in 1996, one of whom went so far as to joke that “although it’s extremely unlikely that koala prints would be found at the scene of a crime, police should at least be aware of the possibility.”


Only 1% of the Earth’s mass contains all known life in the universe.
To call our planet one grain of sand on the beach that is the universe would be to vastly overstate its size. Yet however infinitesimal in the unfathomably grand scheme of things, Earth is home to all known life in the universe — and all of that life has been found in just 1% of the planet’s mass. That tiny fraction refers to Earth's crust, which is 25 miles deep and has been home to every life-form ever known. There is no evidence of intelligent life beyond our pale blue dot, although many scientists and civilians alike tend to believe (or at least hope) that it’s out there. Beneath the crust lies the planet’s mantle, which contains solid rocks, minerals, and areas of semi-solid magma. Even deeper, there’s the Earth’s core, which is extremely hot — parts are as hot as the surface of the sun — and mostly made of metal, which isn’t exactly conducive to nurturing life. Beyond our planet, astronomers have long sought to discover life on Mars, although Venus (often called Earth’s twin) is also looking promising when it comes to aliens, or at least alien microbes. Both Mars and Venus sit within our sun’s “habitable zone,” which is defined as the distance from a star that enables liquid water to exist on a planet’s surface, like our precious crust.


The name for a single spaghetti noodle is “spaghetto.”
If you go into an Italian restaurant and order spaghetto, chances are you’ll leave hungry. That’s because “spaghetto” refers to just a lone pasta strand; it’s the singular form of the plural “spaghetti.” Other beloved Italian foods share this same grammatical distinction — one cannoli is actually a “cannolo,” and it's a single cheese-filled “raviolo” or “panino” sandwich. Though this may seem strange given that these plural terms are so ingrained in the English lexicon, Italian language rules state that a word ending in -i means it’s plural, whereas an -o or -a suffix (depending on whether it’s a masculine or feminine term) denotes singularity. (Similarly, “paparazzo” is the singular form of the plural “paparazzi.”) As for the term for the beloved pasta dish itself, “spaghetti” was inspired by the Italian word “spago,” which means “twine” or “string.” Despite pasta’s deep association with Italy, it’s far from an Italian invention. Though its precise origins are somewhat obscure, Arab traders are thought to have introduced pasta to Sicily sometime in the eighth or ninth centuries. Even pasta sauce isn’t originally Italian: Tomatoes were brought to Europe in the 16th century by explorers from the New World, with the first tomato sauce recipe appearing in a 1692 Italian cookbook written by chef Antonio Latini. More than 300 years later, spaghetti is a perennially popular dish, even if most of us haven't always known what to call it.


2,000-year-old "computer" from ancient Greece.
The Antikythera Mechanism is one of the most astounding archeological finds in history. Discovered within the ruins of an ancient Greco-Roman shipwreck first found by sponge divers in 1900, it was brought to the surface the following year as part of the world’s first major underwater archeological excavation. At first, the mechanism — in dozens of corroded, greenish pieces of bronze — was more or less overlooked in favor of the many bronze and marble statues, coins, amphorae, and other intriguing items the shipwreck contained. But in the 1950s, science historian Derek J. de Solla Price took particular interest in the machine, convinced that it was in fact an ancient computer. In the early 21st century, advanced imaging techniques have proven Price correct.
Of course, this wasn’t a digital creation, but an analog computer, likely dating to around the first century BCE. Although only portions of the original device survive, scientists have been able to piece together its original function. About the size of a mantle clock, the Antikythera Mechanism was a box full of dozens of gears with a handle on the side. When the handle turned, the device calculated eclipses, moon phases, the movements of the five visible planets — Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn — and more. It even included a dial for the timing of the ancient Olympics and religious festivals. Nothing else like it is known from antiquity, and nothing like it shows up in the archeological record for another 1,000 years. Scientists aren’t sure exactly who made the device, although the ancient Greek astronomer and mathematician Hipparchus has been suggested as the creator, and the famed mathematician and inventor Archimedes may also have been involved. While its origin will likely remain a mystery, the mechanism’s purpose has only grown clearer with time — and its existence has completely altered our understanding of the history of technology.


Slime molds can solve mazes.
Slime molds, sometimes affectionately referred to as “The Blob,” defy scientific explanation — literally. They’re not plants, animals, or even fungi (as scientists believed before DNA sequencing came along). Instead, slime molds are considered protists, which one scientist describes as a catch-all term for “everything we don’t really understand.” Slime molds also defy our understanding of sex, since they are capable of assuming more than 700 different sexes depending on their genetics. They even complicate our ideas about intelligence. Alone, slime molds are simple single-celled creatures, but together they form a complex network that can remember and exhibit plenty of smarts.
For example, slime molds such as Physarum polycephalum are expert maze solvers. They approach a maze completely differently than your average human, who might start out on one path only to hit a dead end, backtrack, and then test another path. A slime mold, on the other hand, spreads itself over the entire surface of the maze and then reorganizes its body, leaving behind the most efficient path to get from point A to point B. Of course, slime molds didn’t start out by solving mazes for fun or science: In the wild, Physarum polycephalum has evolved to spread out its pseudopodia — a network of tube-like tendrils — to locate food such as bacteria and fungal spores. Once the food has been found, the slime mold creates the most efficient pathway to that food possible — all without a brain or nervous system. Scientists can still only theorize about how slime molds transport information along their bodies. And although they’ve oozed around the planet for perhaps a billion years, slime molds are only recently getting the respect they deserve. In 2019, the Paris Zoo created an exhibit celebrating the slime mold, a decision that went viral and captured the attention of the world. Well, better late than never.


Atlas moths, the largest in the world, have wingspans close to 12 inches.
In the subtropical forests of the Malay Archipelago, a moth of seemingly impossible proportions flutters among the trees. Named the atlas moth (Attacus atlas), this saturniid — meaning a member of the Saturniidae family — is the largest moth in the world in terms of overall size, with a staggering maximum wingspan of nearly 12 inches and a surface area up to 62 inches. The moth is so huge that it’s often mistaken for a bird at first glance. Being a big moth means it’s also a big caterpillar, stretching up to nearly five inches long, and its silk cocoon is so durable that people in Taiwan sometimes use them as purses. Sadly, the moths are also short-lived, surviving only one to two weeks after emerging from their cocoons.
Although the atlas moth is considered the biggest in overall size compared to other lepidopterans (a taxonomic order that includes butterflies, moths, and skippers), it isn’t necessarily an outlier. The hercules moth (Coscinocera hercules), endemic to Papua New Guinea and Australia, comes in a close second with a wingspan of 11 inches, and the males have a graceful swallowtail that actually makes them the longest moth. Meanwhile, the white witch moth (Thysania agrippina), found mostly in Central and South America, has a maximum wingspan even slightly longer than that of the atlas moth, at 12.6 inches, although it’s smaller overall. So while your average U.S. moth might be only a tiny nocturnal annoyance, remember that its big and beautiful brethren are fluttering elsewhere.


About 80% of the Earth's oxygen comes from plankton.
Prochlorococcus, a species of ocean-dwelling phytoplankton, only measures about 0.6 micrometers. It’s the world’s smallest organism capable of photosynthesis — so small that 20,000 or so can reside in a single water droplet. But its impacts are so huge that an estimated one out of every five breaths you take is thanks to this miniscule microbe. Prochlorococcus, along with many other types of plankton (organisms carried along by the tides and currents), create as much as 80% of the world’s oxygen. They also play a big role in sequestering carbon from the atmosphere, capturing about 40% of all the CO2 produced. That’s equivalent to the amount that would be captured by roughly four Amazon rainforests.
Phytoplankton such as Prochlorococcus produce oxygen through photosynthesis, the same way plants on land do, by soaking up the sun for energy and releasing oxygen into the ocean and atmosphere. Also like plants on land, phytoplankton are full of the compound chlorophyll, which gives some of the microbes their green color. The entire ocean ecosystem rests upon these vital, oxygen-burping organisms, which provide essential nutrients for beings from the smallest krill to the largest blue whale.                                         

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Cuttlefish, squid, and octopuses all have three hearts                                                                                                               — a systemic heart to pump blood throughout the body, and two branchial hearts used for pumping blood through the gills. Cows famously have a stomach with four separate compartments, but that’s nothing compared to the Baird’s beaked whale, which can have as many as 13 stomachs. Perhaps no animal is more unusual, however, than the Ramisyllis multicaudata, a sea worm with hundreds of butts, each with its own set of eyes and brain.

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